Impaired phagocytic function in CX3CR1 + tissue-resident skeletal muscle macrophages prevents muscle recovery after influenza A virus-induced pneumonia in old mice
August 20, 2020

Impaired phagocytic function in CX3CR1 + tissue-resident skeletal muscle macrophages prevents muscle recovery after influenza A virus-induced pneumonia in old mice

By Matsuoka

the victim’s skeletal muscle dysfunction pneumonia disproportionately affects older individuals among major cause considerable morbidity. We found that the recovery of the skeletal muscle is impaired in elderly compared with young mice after the influenza A virus-induced pneumonia. In young mice, the recovery of muscle loss associated with the expansion of skeletal muscle tissue macrophage-resident and downregulation of the expression of MHC II, followed by a proliferation of muscle satellite cells.

These findings are not present in older rats and mice that lacked Cx3cr1. transcriptomic profiling of tissue-resident macrophages skeletal muscle of old compared to young rats showed downregulation of pathways associated with phagocytosis and proteostasis and continuous upregulation of inflammatory pathways. Consistently, skeletal muscle macrophages from old mice failed to downregulate the expression of MHCII during recovery from influenza

A virus-induced pneumonia and show impaired phagocytic function in vitro. Like the old animals, phagocytic receptor deficient mice did not show expansion Mertk macrophages, MHCII downregulation, or satellite cell proliferation and failed to recover the skeletal muscle function after influenza A pneumonia. Our data indicate that the loss of phagocytic function in a network-resident population of macrophages muscle order blocking rat CX3CR1 + in the old satellite cell proliferation and restoration of skeletal muscle function after influenza A pneumonia.


A phytochemical investigation Polygonatum odoratum root cause isolation fifteen steroid glycosides (1-15), three homoisoflavanones (16-18) and four cinnamic acid derivatives (19-22). The structure of all the compounds isolated are established primarily by spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence required, the 1-8 (polygodorasides A-G) is identified as a new steroid glycosides. Among isolates, compounds 7 and 17 showed remarkable in vitro inhibitory effect against influenza viruses with IC50 values ​​of 14.30 and 49.70 mM (positive control ribavirin 28.4 M).

 Impaired phagocytic function in CX3CR1 + tissue-resident skeletal muscle macrophages prevents muscle recovery after influenza A virus-induced pneumonia in old mice
Impaired phagocytic function in CX3CR1 + tissue-resident skeletal muscle macrophages prevents muscle recovery after influenza A virus-induced pneumonia in old mice

phylogenetic characterization of the influenza A H5N2 reassortant virus from Mexico resident ducks (Anas diazi)

Congregation different migration and resident bird species in aquatic ecosystems during the winter migration increased level of contact and Improving influenza A virus (IAV) transmission. However, research has focused on the contribution of rare birds for virus ecology citizens on a local scale.

Mexican duck (Anas diazi) is anatid endangered endemic of Mexico. This resident species shares aquatic habitat by migratory birds in the wetlands of Central Mexico. Therefore, here we describe the phylogenetic analysis of IAV (A / Mexicanduck / EstadodeMexico; Lerma / UIFMVZ377 / 2016 (H5N2)) were isolated in this species, as long as spatiotemporal agreement with anatids migrate in winter. All eight gene sequences obtained by nextgeneration sequencing.

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Maximum Likelihood tree constructed using MEGA-X, with General Time Reversible + Invariant (GTR + I), subtree pruning and Regrafting (SPR) heuristic method, and 1000 bootstrap replications. IAV similarities with six different subtypes observed through BLAST search: H6N5, H7N7, H5N2, H4N6, H9N2, and H11N9, was detected in wild ducks during 2015 at a site to stop the Pacific, Central and Mississippi flyways throughout the United States and Canada. IAV molecular identification reassortant H5N2 highlights the importance of resident species as the host reservoirs and their potential participation in the maintenance and transmission of IAV in wetlands surrounded by countryside.