Regulation of Host Immune Responses against Influenza A Virus Infection by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs)

Influenza is a major respiratory viral illness caused by infection of influenza A virus (IAV), which still persists in various global seasonal epidemics every year. the host immune response is a key factor that determines the severity of influenza infection, present an attractive target for the development of new therapies for the treatment.

Among the double track signal transduction that regulates the activation of the host immune response and function in response to infection IAV, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that wicks important signaling, downstream receptors pattern recognition (PRRS), activated by IAVs that regulate various processes cell in the immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immunity.

In addition, aberrant activation of MAPK overexuberant underlying the production of inflammatory mediators, promoting the development of a “cytokine storm”, the characteristics of severe respiratory viral diseases. Therefore, explanation of MAPK regulatory role in the immune response to IAVs not only important for understanding the pathogenesis of severe influenza, but it is also important to develop a MAPK-dependent therapies for the treatment of respiratory viral diseases. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of the function of MAPK in both the innate and adaptive immune responses to IAVs and discuss their contribution to the cytokine storm caused by the highly pathogenic influenza virus.


Trimeric soluble recombinant influenza A virus hemagglutinins (HA) and tetrameric neuraminidases (NA) has proven to be an excellent tool to decipher biological properties. Receptor binding and cleavage of sialic acid by a recombinant protein correlated satisfactory compared with the whole virus. Expression of HA and NA can be achieved in many different laboratories host.

For the study of immunology and receptor interactions, however, insect and mammalian cell expressed proteins are preferred because of the presence of N-linked glycosylation and disulfide bond formation. Because the expression of mammalian cells is widely applied, yield enhancement expression is an important goal. Here we report that the use of codon-optimized genes and fusion sfGFP, HA expression results can be improved

Regulation of Host Immune Responses against Influenza A Virus Infection by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs)
Regulation of Host Immune Responses against Influenza A Virus Infection by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs)

Comparative Analysis of Antiviral Activity of IgG and IgA antibodies to Influenza A Virus M2 Protein

The influenza A virus (IAV) matrix-2 (M2) protein is a viral envelope proteins conserved antigens that plays an important role in virus starters together with other envelope proteins, hemagglutinin (HA). M2-specific mouse monoclonal antibody IgG, rM2ss23, which binds to the ectodomain of the M2 protein, has been shown to be non-neutralizing antibodies, but inhibits plaque formation IAV strains.

In this study, we produce rM2ss23 chimeric (ch-rM2ss23) IgG and IgA antibodies with the same variable region and compared their antiviral activity. Using gel chromatography, ch-rM2ss23 IgA is divided into three subsets of antibodies: IgA monomer (m-IgA), dimeric IgA (d-IgA), and trimeric and tetrameric IgA (t / q-IgA).

Basic Cytotoxicity Test Kits

CT17002 250 Tests
EUR 650

Total Cytotoxicity Test Kits

CT17003 125 Tests
EUR 513

Total Cytotoxicity Test Kits

CT17004 250 Tests
EUR 813

T&A Cloning Kits

FYC001-20P 1 vial Ask for price

Necrosis vs Apoptosis Kits

KF17371 50-100 Tests
EUR 435

Necrosis vs Apoptosis Kits

KF17372 100-200 Tests
EUR 768

Pipette Stand Starter Kits

P7700-S1 1 PC
EUR 507.83
  • To order instruments in 115V / US plug please delete the 'E' off the order code.European 2 pin plugs will be supplied as standard, please request UK if required.

Pipette Stand Starter Kits

P7700-S2 1 PC
EUR 526.1
  • To order instruments in 115V / US plug please delete the 'E' off the order code.European 2 pin plugs will be supplied as standard, please request UK if required.

MitoPT™ TMRE & TMRM Kits

KF17358 500 Test
EUR 479

MitoPT™ TMRE & TMRM Kits

KF17359 500 Test
EUR 479

Rat Neural Stem Cell Kits

PC37123 1 X 10(6) *minimum order 6 vials*
EUR 957

HISTAR DETECTION SYSTEM Kits (OKSA11259)

OKSA11259 50 Tests
EUR 565
Description: Description of target: HISTAR DETECTION SYSTEM;Species reactivity: ;Application: IHC-AFF, IHC-FFPE;Assay info: ;Sensitivity:

HISTAR DETECTION SYSTEM Kits (OKSA11260)

OKSA11260 150 Tests
EUR 1335
Description: Description of target: HISTAR DETECTION SYSTEM;Species reactivity: ;Application: IHC-AFF, IHC-FFPE;Assay info: ;Sensitivity:

HISTAR DETECTION SYSTEM Kits (OKSA11261)

OKSA11261 500 Tests
EUR 2019
Description: Description of target: HISTAR DETECTION SYSTEM;Species reactivity: ;Application: IHC-AFF, IHC-FFPE;Assay info: ;Sensitivity:

MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE POTENTIAL KIT Kits (OKSA11298)

OKSA11298 500 Tests
EUR 956
Description: Description of target: MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE POTENTIAL KIT ;Species reactivity: Human;Application: FC, IF;Assay info: ;Sensitivity:

MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE POTENTIAL KIT Kits (OKSA11300)

OKSA11300 500 Tests
EUR 956
Description: Description of target: MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE POTENTIAL KIT ;Species reactivity: Human;Application: FC, IF;Assay info: ;Sensitivity:

Mast/stem Cell Growth Factor Receptor Kit (Kits) Antibody

20-abx116620
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Rabbit ANTI 14-3-3 ISOFORM PANEL Kits (OKSA11258)

OKSA11258 1 u
EUR 1236
Description: Description of target: RABBIT ANTI 14-3-3 ISOFORM PANEL;Species reactivity: Sheep;Application: ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB;Assay info: ;Sensitivity:

XTT CELL VIABILITY ASSAY KIT (1000 ASSAY)

30007 1KIT
EUR 236
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1KIT

Endothelial Tube Formation Assay (In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay)

CBA-200 50 assays
EUR 560
Description: For angiogenesis to occur, endothelial cells must escape their stable location and break through the basement membrane. Cells migrate toward an angiogenic stimulus that may be released from nearby tumor cells. These cells proliferate to form new blood vessels. Our Endothelial Tube Formation Assay (In Vitro Angiogenesis) provides an easy, robust system to assess angiogenesis in vitro. The ECM gel matrix very closely resembles an in vivo environment.

Glycosaminoglycans Assay Kit

6022 1 kit
EUR 419.75
Description: Glycosaminoglycans Assay Kit

DNA Assay Kit

6023 1 kit
EUR 180.5
Description: DNA Assay Kit

Hemoglobin Assay Kit

6024 1 kit
EUR 180.5
Description: Hemoglobin Assay Kit

Proteasome Assay Kit

55R-1341 100 assays
EUR 654
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Proteasome in the research laboratory

Calpain Assay Kit

55R-1342 100 assays
EUR 779
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Calpain in the research laboratory

Glutathione Assay Kit

55R-1343 100 assays
EUR 654
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Glutathione in the research laboratory

Glutathione Assay Kit

55R-1354 100 assays
EUR 895
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Glutathione activity in the research laboratory

HDAC Assay Kit

55R-1371 100 assays
EUR 673
Description: Assay Kit for detection of HDAC in the research laboratory

HDAC Assay Kit

55R-1372 100 assays
EUR 673
Description: Assay Kit for detection of HDAC in the research laboratory

HAT Assay Kit

55R-1373 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of HAT in the research laboratory

SOD Assay Kit

55R-1374 100 assays
EUR 602
Description: Assay Kit for detection of SOD in the research laboratory

HDAC3 Assay Kit

55R-1377 100 assays
EUR 693
Description: Assay Kit for detection of HDAC3 in the research laboratory

HDAC8 Assay Kit

55R-1379 100 assays
EUR 689
Description: Assay Kit for detection of HDAC8 in the research laboratory

ATP Assay Kit

55R-1380 100 assays
EUR 809
Description: Assay Kit for detection of ATP in the research laboratory

ADP Assay Kit

55R-1381 100 assays
EUR 809
Description: Assay Kit for detection of ADP in the research laboratory

FAD Assay Kit

55R-1382 100 assays
EUR 732
Description: Assay Kit for detection of FAD in the research laboratory

PEP Assay Kit

55R-1384 100 assays
EUR 876
Description: Assay Kit for detection of PEP in the research laboratory

Ammonia Assay Kit

55R-1388 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Ammonia in the research laboratory

cAMP Assay Kit

55R-1389 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of cAMP activity in the research laboratory

cGMP Assay Kit

55R-1390 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of cGMP activity in the research laboratory

Urea Assay Kit

55R-1391 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Urea in the research laboratory

Calcium Assay Kit

55R-1392 250 assays
EUR 586
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Calcium activity in the research laboratory

Magnesium Assay Kit

55R-1393 100 assays
EUR 654
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Magnesium in the research laboratory

Zinc Assay Kit

55R-1394 100 assays
EUR 673
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Zinc in the research laboratory

Iron Assay Kit

55R-1395 100 assays
EUR 758
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Iron in the research laboratory

Phosphate Assay Kit

55R-1400 500 assays
EUR 415
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Phosphate in the research laboratory

JNK Assay Kit

55R-1407 40 assays
EUR 868
Description: Assay Kit for detection of JNK in the research laboratory

JNK Assay Kit

55R-1408 40 assays
EUR 979
Description: Assay Kit for detection of JNK in the research laboratory

Akt Assay Kit

55R-1409 40 assays
EUR 979
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Akt in the research laboratory

Ammonia Assay Kit

55R-1410 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Ammonia in the research laboratory

Cobalt Assay Kit

55R-1435 100 assays
EUR 621
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Cobalt in the research laboratory

Nickel Assay Kit

55R-1436 100 assays
EUR 621
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Nickel in the research laboratory

Chloride Assay Kit

55R-1437 100 assays
EUR 484
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Chloride in the research laboratory

Aspartate Assay Kit

55R-1438 100 assays
EUR 673
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Aspartate in the research laboratory

Hydroxyproline Assay Kit

55R-1439 100 assays
EUR 844
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Hydroxyproline in the research laboratory

Phenylalanine Assay Kit

55R-1442 100 assays
EUR 654
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Phenylalanine in the research laboratory

Phosphatidylcholine Assay Kit

55R-1443 100 assays
EUR 673
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Phosphatidylcholine in the research laboratory

Glucose Assay Kit

55R-1449 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Glucose in the research laboratory

Lactate Assay Kit

55R-1450 100 assays
EUR 844
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Lactate in the research laboratory

Pyruvate Assay Kit

55R-1452 100 assays
EUR 844
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Pyruvate in the research laboratory

Adipogenesis Assay Kit

55R-1454 100 assays
EUR 586
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Adipogenesis in the research laboratory

Glucose Assay Kit

55R-1458 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Glucose in the research laboratory

Galactose Assay Kit

55R-1459 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Galactose in the research laboratory

Maltose Assay Kit

55R-1460 100 assays
EUR 723
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Maltose in the research laboratory

Fructose Assay Kit

55R-1461 100 assays
EUR 689
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Fructose in the research laboratory

Ethanol Assay Kit

55R-1462 100 assays
EUR 774
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Ethanol in the research laboratory

Galactose Assay Kit

55R-1463 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Galactose in the research laboratory

Lactose Assay Kit

55R-1466 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Lactose in the research laboratory

Creatinine Assay Kit

55R-1467 100 assays
EUR 638
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Creatinine in the research laboratory

Sucrose Assay Kit

55R-1468 100 assays
EUR 689
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Sucrose in the research laboratory

Lactate Assay Kit

55R-1469 100 assays
EUR 844
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Lactate in the research laboratory

Maltose Assay Kit

55R-1470 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Maltose in the research laboratory

Glutamate Assay Kit

55R-1471 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Glutamate in the research laboratory

Fumarate Assay Kit

55R-1475 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Fumarate in the research laboratory

Creatine Assay Kit

55R-1476 100 assays
EUR 654
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Creatine in the research laboratory

Sarcosine Assay Kit

55R-1477 100 assays
EUR 654
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Sarcosine in the research laboratory

Malate Assay Kit

55R-1478 100 assays
EUR 673
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Malate in the research laboratory

Glycogen Assay Kit

55R-1481 100 assays
EUR 844
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Glycogen in the research laboratory

Starch Assay Kit

55R-1482 100 assays
EUR 673
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Starch in the research laboratory

Alanine Assay Kit

55R-1483 100 assays
EUR 654
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Alanine in the research laboratory

Formate Assay Kit

55R-1484 100 assays
EUR 809
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Formate in the research laboratory

Citrate Assay Kit

55R-1485 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Citrate in the research laboratory

Isocitrate Assay Kit

55R-1486 100 assays
EUR 663
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Isocitrate in the research laboratory

Oxaloacetate Assay Kit

55R-1488 100 assays
EUR 663
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Oxaloacetate in the research laboratory

Heme Assay Kit

55R-1492 100 assays
EUR 673
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Heme in the research laboratory

Glucose Assay Kit

55R-1494 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Glucose in the research laboratory

Amylase Assay Kit

55R-1503 100 assays
EUR 551
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Amylase in the research laboratory

Inosine Assay Kit

55R-1504 100 assays
EUR 732
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Inosine in the research laboratory

Aconitase Assay Kit

55R-1505 100 assays
EUR 689
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Aconitase in the research laboratory

Lipase Assay Kit

55R-1506 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Lipase in the research laboratory

Lipase Assay Kit

55R-1507 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Lipase in the research laboratory

MDA Assay Kit

55R-1512 100 assays
EUR 809
Description: Assay Kit for detection of MDA in the research laboratory

Myeloperoxidase Assay Kit

55R-1514 100 assays
EUR 809
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Myeloperoxidase in the research laboratory

Myeloperoxidase Assay Kit

55R-1515 100 assays
EUR 758
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Myeloperoxidase in the research laboratory

Asparaginase Assay Kit

55R-1518 100 assays
EUR 758
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Asparaginase in the research laboratory

Trypsin Assay Kit

55R-1524 100 assays
EUR 621
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Trypsin in the research laboratory

We found that t / q-IgA have significantly higher capacity to reduce plaque size of IAVs of m-IgG and IgA, most likely caused by a decrease in the number of offspring produced virus particles from infected cells. Interestingly, HA-M2 colocalization was greatly reduced on the surface of infected cells with antibodies ch-rM2ss23. These results indicate that the polymeric IgA anti-M2 Limit beginner IAV more efficient than IgG and suggested the role of anti-M2 IgA cross-protective immunity IAVs.